Here’s how to reference lecture notes, computer software, a statement from a corporate author and personal communication. Corporate authors are groups that serve as authors, such as corporations, associations and government agencies. Personal communication can include emails, interviews (conducted face-to-face or via email correspondence), informal conversations, telephone calls, letters, and lecture presentations or online classroom discussion posts that are not publicly accessible.

APA 6th edition style guidelines

Direct quote 

Page numbers must be included if present. If not available, give paragraph numbers. 

“Systems can be natural or artificial, eg. The solar system; Australia; Swinburne University of Technology; a bicycle” (Tipping, 2010, para. 2). 


Page numbers or paragraph numbers may be required. 

There are usually two types of systems: natural systems and artificial systems (Tipping, 2010). 

Reference list entry 

Tipping, R. (2010). Lecture 1: Enterprise system management [Lecture]. Retrieved from http://swinburne.blackboard.swinburne.tippy.enterprise

Direct quote

Endnote Version 10.0.2 software "is made available under a site licence agreement" (ISI Research, 2006).


Endnote is a program, available to students through an institutional agreement with the software provider, that enables researchers to store, manage and present information in citations and reference lists (ISI Research, 2006).

Reference list entry

When the author and the publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. 

ISI Research. (2006). Endnote (Version 10.0.2) [Computer software]. San Fransisco, CA: Author.

Groups that serve as authors — such as corporations, associations and government agencies — are usually spelled out each time they appear in-text. If the group name is generally known by an acronym, then it may be spelled out in full in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter.


According to the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (2004) figures for 2004...

This can be seen... (Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, 2004). 

Reference list entry

Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. (2004). AASB standards for 2005: equivalents to IFRSs as at August 2004. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.

Personal communication can include emails, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls, letters, and lecture presentations. Initials of the author as well as full details of the date (month, day and year) should be provided in the text.


(S. Hansen, personal communication, July 2, 2011).

S.J. Larmar (personal communication, May 1, 2011) said...

On 20 July 2011, A. Jones confirmed ...

Reference entry list

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

Using a different source type?

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