The reference for an authored or edited book includes the author or editor, date, title and source. These elements are usually found on the front cover and copyright pages of the book. These reference formats apply to both ebooks and print books. Here’s how to reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, pamphlets, ebooks and more.

APA 6th edition style guidelines

Single book

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Fetherston (2007, p. 61) claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (p. 61).


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be included if summarising an idea from a particular page.

Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).
 

Reference list entry

Locations in the US are formatted as ‘city, state abbreviation’ e.g. New York, NY. Locations outside the US are ‘city, country’ e.g. London, England. 

Fetherston, T. (2007). Becoming an effective teacher. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson Learning.


Referencing a particular edition of a book

No modification required for the in-text citations for either direct quotes or paraphrasing.


Reference list entry

Add the edition to the reference list entry.

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham, England: Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University Press.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

“For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011, p. 10).


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced. The release…(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).


Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). 2011 Census dictionary (No. 2901.0). Canberra, ACT: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Bohm and Chaudri (2000, p. 52) claim that Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training".


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudri, 2000).


Reference list entry

Bohm, A., & Chaudri, D. (2000). Securing Australia's future: An analysis of the international education markets in India. Sydney, Australia: IDP Education Australia.

Cite all authors the first time. In subsequent citations use the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year.


Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

First citation:

Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O'Brien, and Tran (2002, p. 27) found that universities "are embracing the concept".

Subsequent citation(s):

Bell et al. (2002, p. 27) stated that "Australian universities have led the way".

"Australian universities have led the way" (Bell et al., 2002, p. 27).


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

First citation:

Australian universities are actively using online technology (Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O'Brien, & Tran, 2002).

Subsequent citation(s):

Bell et al. (2002)... 

... (Bell et al., 2002)


Reference list entry

Bell, M., Bush, D., Nicholson, P., O'Brien, D., & Tran, T. (2002). Universities online: A survey of online education and services in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Science and Training.

Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for all citations.


Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Louden et al. (2000, p. 27) concludes that the number of primary students "having difficulty with numeracy is somewhat lower than that of literacy".


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The report concluded that difficulties with numeracy were less than difficulties with literacy for primary school students (Louden et al., 2000).


Reference list entry

Include surnames and initials for up to (and including) seven authors. For eight or more authors, include the first six authors’ names, then include an ellipsis, and add the last author’s name:

Louden, W., Chan, L. K., Elkins, J., Greaves, D., House, H., Milton, M.,...Van Kraayenoord, C. (2000). Mapping the territory: Primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and numeracy (Vol. 2). Canberra, Australia: Department Education, Training and Youth Affairs.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Higher education in Australia (2004, p. 23) claims that Australia is "a major provider of international education and training services".


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher education in Australia, 2004).


Reference list entry

Higher education in Australia: The facts. (2004). Fitzroy, Australia: Business/Higher Education Round Table.

Multiple books with the same author

Order the citations of two or more works within the same brackets in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Place in-press citations last. Give the author's surname(s) once. Give only the date for each subsequent work.

Direct quotes are not possible when referencing multiple works by the same author.


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The lecturer's understanding of teaching has an effect on the quality of student learning (Ramsden, 1992, 1994).


Reference list entry

Works by the same author are arranged by year of publication with the earliest year first.

Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. London, England: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1994). Using research on student learning to enhance educational quality. Nathan, Australia: Griffith Institute for Higher Education.

Identify works by the same author in the same year by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year.


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Feedback to students on their assessments contributes to the quality of their learning (Ramsden, 1998a, 1998b).


Reference list entry

References by the same author with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A or The) that follows the date.

Ramsden, P. (1998a). Learning to lead in higher education. London, England: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1998b). What makes a university effective? Nathan, Australia: Griffith University.

Other types of books

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included. 

Thompson, 2008, p. 52


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Thompson discusses the interest among educators and students alike that have a growing interest in virtual education.  He says that there is a growing…..school. (Thompson, 2008. p. 165).


Reference list entry

Thomson, S. (2008). Teaching in a virtual setting. In L. Bell & R.B. Trueman (Eds.), Virtual worlds, real libraries: Librarians and educators in Second Life and other multi-user virtual environments (pp. 165-172). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Use secondary sources only when you cannot obtain the primary source of information.


Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Gardener (as cited in Biggs & Tang, 2007) states that if as a teacher you cover a wide range of topics "you are guaranteeing that most kids will not understand, because they haven't had time enough to go into things in depth" (p. 82).


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

There is a delicate balance in teaching between depth of learning and breadth of learning, which means the greater the coverage of a topic the lesser the depth of understanding that may be achieved by students (Gardiner as cited in Biggs & Tang, 2007).


Reference list entry

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

There seems to be a central belief that archaeology "can reveal the evidence of the whole human story from prehistoric to historical times" (Murray, 1991, p. xv).


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

There is a general belief that mankind can derive much from examining and understanding human history through archaeology (Murray, 1991).


Reference list entry

Murray, T (ed.) 1991, Encyclopedia of archaeology: the great archaeologists, vols. 1-2, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included. Instead of an author, include the title of the pamphlet in italics. For long titles, include only the first part.

Successful scanning of a barcode involves the symbol having "sufficient contrast, dark bars on light background" (Bar code information, 1996, p. 22).


Paraphrasing

The contrast between the barcode and its background is important as scanners utilise a red light in the scanning process (Bar code information, 1996).


Reference list entry

Bar code information for Commonwealth material. (1996). [Brochure]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included unless there are no page numbers, in which case use the chapter and section details (chapter is abbreviated as ‘ch.’).

Tanaka (2012, p. 19) notes this shift in law as being due to offshore exploration and drilling: “After World War II, however, coastal states increasingly extended their jurisdiction toward the high seas in order to control offshore resources”.


Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be included if required and if available.

Tanaka (2012) asserts that coastal nations, wanting to obtain and secure offshore deposits of natural resources for their own use, expanded their jurisdictional reach into the high seas.


Reference list entry

If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content, include the home page URL.

Tanaka, Y. (2012). The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press. EBL Ebook Library. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com


You can also refer to the Webpage or Download quick guide.

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