Swinburne Harvard style guide

The Swinburne Harvard style guide is an author-date citation style. This guide is based on Snooks and Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.

Always check with your lecturer that this is the citation style guide required for your unit.

Guidelines

In-text references

Format

  • To cite a reference in the text of your work, insert the reference material and then immediately place the author's surname and the year of publication in brackets after it, e.g.(Dawkins 2012)
  • You must include the page number(s) if you are paraphrasing the reference or quoting it, e.g. "The universe has..." (Dawkins 2012, p. 226).
  • If you use the author's name in your sentence because they are well-known, then place the year of publication and page number in brackets after the name, e.g. Dawkins (2012, p. 226) rationalises that...
  • When you quote a single sentence, enclose it in double quotation marks: " ".
  • When you quote two or more sentences, then do not enclose them in double quotation marks – instead, place them on a new line, indent the entire quote and finish with the in-text reference. New text after that quote should commence on a new line and not be indented.

Authors

  • Authors may be a single individual, a number of individuals, or an organisation.
  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials.
  • Where there is no author, use the title of the work (in italics) instead (e.g. Hatching and raising brine shrimp 2010, p. 2).
  • For two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) between the last two author's names. If you are writing their names directly into your text, replace the ampersand with the word 'and'.
  • If you cite two or more works at the one place in your work by the same author but they were published in different years, list the author's name once and then arrange the years of publication for the in-text citation from oldest to newest e.g. (Flannery 2003, p. 11; 2005, p. 28; 2008, p. 17).
  • For two or more authors with the same surname publishing different works in the same year, include all initials after a comma, eg. Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D 2009, p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L 2009, p. 145).
  • You can cite two or more different information sources in the same single in-text references (especially when those sources all make the same point) eg. (Comert 2013, p. 59; Faw 2013, p. 374; Li & Gao 2013, p. 475).

Dates

The Harvard Style is based on a combination of author and date. If a date of publication cannot be found use one of the following subsitutes:

Page numbers

  • In-text references should include page number details (if available) if you are paraphrasing or quoting.
  • Page numbers are not required if referencing an entire work, eg. (Milligan 1985).
  • If page numbers are not provided or possible, then author name and year of publication are sufficient.
  • Use p. for a single page and pp. for a range of consecutive pages, e.g. (Dawkins 2012, pp. 15-19)
  • Additional details such as volume numbers should only be used when necessary to avoid confusion with other volumes of the same series by an author.

Reference list

Format

  • All in-text citations must have fully detailed, corresponding entries in a reference list at the end of your assignment.
  • Reference list entries should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname (or by organisation name).
  • If an organisation name begins with 'The', ignore it and arrange their name alphabetically by the next word, eg. The Centre for Academic Excellence is not arranged down in the letter T, but at the letter C.
  • Each new information source should begin on a new line.

Authors

  • Authors may be a single individual, a number of individuals, or an organisation.
  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials.
  • Where there is no author, use the title of the work (in italics) instead (e.g. Hatching and raising brine shrimp 2010, p. 2).
  • For two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) between the last two author's names. If you are writing their names directly into your text, replace the ampersand with the word 'and'.
  • If you cite two or more works at the one place in your work by the same author but they were published in different years, list the author's name once and then arrange the years of publication for the in-text citation from oldest to newest e.g. (Flannery 2003, p. 11; 2005, p. 28; 2008, p. 17).
  • For two or more authors with the same surname publishing different works in the same year, include all initials after a comma, eg. Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D 2009, p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L 2009, p. 145).
  • You can cite two or more different information sources in the same single in-text references (especially when those sources all make the same point) eg. (Comert 2013, p. 59; Faw 2013, p. 374; Li & Gao 2013, p. 475).

Dates

The Harvard Style is based on a combination of author and date. If a date of publication cannot be found use one of the following subsitutes:

  • c. 1995 = circa 1995 (an approximate date), where you can determine to within a year or two without much effort. You should try to use this whenever possible eg. Evidently there is still uncertainty and ongoing debate about the actual colours painted on Tunisian Tigers (Chaltry c. 2002).
  • 2005? = a dubious / possible date. (Use when you can only determine to within a few years.)
  • n.d. = no known date (Use this very sparingly. Most dates can be roughly determined.)
  • forthcoming = a work to be published in the near future.

Titles

  • Book titles, journal names and website titles should be in italics.
  • Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns of book titles should be capitalised.
  • All major words in the names of journals, newspapers and magazines should be capitalised.
  • Chapter titles and journal/newspaper/magazine article titles should be enclosed in single quotation marks and not in italics.

Volume / issue / series

Articles

Place of publication

  • If more than one place of publication is listed, use only the first-listed place.
  • Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names (e.g. NSW not N.S.W.)

Page numbers

Books

Abbreviations

AbbreviationMeaning
& ampersand, which means 'and'
Anon shortened version of Anonymous
c. an approximate date, 
accurate to within one or two years eg. c. 2009.
ch. chapter
ed. editor
eds editors
edn edition
et al. 'and others'
n.d. no date
no. number
nos numbers
p. page
pp. pages
pdf a document software format
s. section number
ss. section numbers
trans translated by
URL Uniform Resource Locator. Formal title for internet address.
vol. volume
vols volumes

Examples

Book

One author


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Dawkins, R 2012, The magic of reality, Black Swan, London.


In-text

Direct quote

"The universe has ..." (Dawkins 2012, p. 226).

Paraphrase

Dawkins (2012, p. 226) asserted that ...


Notes

  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials.

Two or three authors


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s), & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Tiernan, A & Weller, P 2010, Learning to be a Minister: heroic expectations, practical realities, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.


In-text

Direct quote

Tiernan and Weller (2010, p. 299) state that "... "

Paraphrase

A minister's performance will be ... (Tiernan & Weller 2010, p. 299).


Notes

  • List author's names in the order they are listed in the book.

Four or more authors


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s), Author, Initial(s), Author, Initial(s), & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication,Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Gabler, M, Lienhard, J, Cremers, J & Knippers, J 2011, Construction manual for polymers + membranes: materials semi-finished products, form-finding design, Birkhauser Architecture, Basel.


In-text

Direct quote

Gabler et al. (2012, p. 67) recommend "..."

Paraphrase

The process involves... (Gabler et al. 2012, p. 68).


Notes

  • List author's names in the order they are listed in the book.
  • In-text: Only list the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning 'and others')
  • Reference list: List all authors (do not use et al.).

No author


Reference list entry

Title Year of publication, Publisher, Place of publication.

Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004, Business/Higher Education Round Table, Fitzroy, VIC.


In-text

Direct quote

Higher education in Australia: the facts (2004, p. 23) claims that "Australia is..."

Paraphrase

Australia has a role in ... (Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004).


Notes

  • Use the title and the year in place of the author. Do not place a comma between the title and year.
  • List the item alphabetically in your reference list by the title.
  • Italicise the title but do not italicise the date.
  • Do not use Anon or Anonymous.

Organisation as author


Reference list entry

Organisation Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

International Chamber of Commerce 2010, Incoterms 2010: ICC rules for the use of domestic and international trade terms, ICC Services, Paris.


In-text

Direct quote

The "seller is required to ..." (International Chamber of Commerce 2010, p. 105).

Paraphrase

The International Chamber of Commerce (2010, p. 105) established that ...


Notes

  • Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author.
  • Use the same rules as for books with one author.

Chapter in an edited book


Reference list entry

Chapter Author, Initials(s) Year of publication, 'Chapter Title', in Editor's Initial(s) Surname (ed./eds), Book Title, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers of chapter.

Connell, D 2012, 'Flailing about in the Murray-Darling basin', in K Crowley & KJ Walker (eds),Environmental policy failure: the Australian story, Tilde University Press, Prahran, pp. 74-87.


In-text

Direct quote

"States have ..." (Connell 2012, p. 80).

Paraphrase

Connell (2012, p. 80) suggests ...


Notes

  • Enclose the chapter title in single quotation marks.
  • After the chapter title, insert the word 'in' before the name of the editor(s).
  • Use (ed.) for a single editor and (eds) for multiple editors.
  • In your reference list, use the editor's name with initials before surname (e.g. K Crowley)
  • If there is no chapter author, use the title in place of the author in-text and in the reference list.

Different edition


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s), & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, edn (edition), Publisher, Place of publication.

McCurley, S, Lynch, R & Jackson, R 2012, The complete volunteer management handbook, 3rd edn, Directory of Social Change, London.


In-text

Direct quote

"Volunteer programmes are ..." (McCurley, Lynch & Jackson 2012, p. 78).

Paraphrase

McCurley, Lynch & Jackson (2012, p. 78) found that ...


Notes

  • The edition statement is only included if this is not the first edition (e.g. 2nd edn).
  • Insert the edition statement after the title.
  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition.
  • A reprint or revised version is not a new edition and does not need specific mentioning; year of publication is enough to identify a reprint.

Book in a series


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title of the book, Series Title, vol. (if available), Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Cabrera, M & Malanowski, N (eds) 2009, Information and communication technologies for active ageing: opportunities and challenges for the European Union, Assistive technology research series, vol. 23, IOS Press, Amsterdam.


In-text

Direct quote

"Demographic challenges are ..." (Cabrera & Malanowski 2009, p. 7).

Paraphrase

Cabrera & Malanowski (2009, p. 142) explain ...


Notes

  • Insert the series title after the title of the work.
  • The series title is not italicised.
  • If the series has a number or volume, insert 'vol.' or 'no.' after the series title.

Table/graph/image in a book


Reference list entry

'Table/graph title' [table], in Author, Initial(s) Year, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication, page number(s).

'Table 1: Personality problems - behaviour predictors' [table], in R de Board 1983,Counselling people at work: an introduction for managers, Gower, Aldershot, Hants., p. 25.


In-text

Paraphrase

The graph (de Board, 1983) illustrates ...


Notes

  • Follow this example for a table/graph/image from a book, where no other part of the book is used.
  • The reference list and in-text reference must refer to the book where it is located. 
  • Enclose the title of the graph/table/image in single quotes.
  • After the title, insert an identifier to describe what you are referencing: [table] for tables and flowcharts, [graph] for graphs, [advertisement] for advertisements, and [image] for everything else.

Ebook


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Ebook collection.

Tanaka, Y 2012, The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press, EBL Ebook Library.


In-text

Direct quote

Tanaka (2012, p. 19) asserts that "After World War II ..."

Paraphrase

Coastal nations can ... (Tanaka 2012, p. 19).


Notes

  • Use this example for ebooks sourced from Swinburne Library databases. Instead of place of publication, use the name of the ebook collection (e.g Books 24x7, EBL Ebook Library), as above.
  • For ebooks sourced from ereaders, replace the place of publication with the name of the ereader device (e.g. Kindle).
  • For ebooks sourced elsewehere online, use the guidelines for webpages.

Article

Journal article


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

Argibay-losada, P, Suarez-Gonzalez, A, Lopez-Garcia, C & Fernandez-Veiga, M 2010, 'Flow splitting for end-to-end proportional QoS in OBS networks', IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 257-269.


In-text

Direct quote

"The main reason ..." (Argibay-losada et al. 2010, p. 263).

Paraphrase

Argibay-losada et al. (2010, p. 263) identified that...


Notes

  • Follow this example for journal and magazine articles from library databases or in print.
  • For articles freely available online, follow the example for Article on the internet below.
  • Enclose the article title in single quotes '...'
  • If there is no volume number, just list the issue number.
  • If there is no volume or issue number, list any available designation such as the day and/or month, or season.

Journal article (no author)


Reference list entry

'Article Title' Year of publication, Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

'World's oldest pills treated sore eyes' 2013, New Scientist, vol. 217, no. 2899, p. 15.


In-text

Direct quote

According to World's oldest pills treated sore eyes (2013, p. 15), "In ancient Rome ..."

Paraphrase

... and this treatment has existed since Roman times (World's oldest pills treated sore eyes2013, p. 15).


Notes

  • Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name.
  • For the reference list, enclose the article title in single quotes '...'.
  • In-text, the article title is not enclosed in single quotes, but is in italics instead.
  • If there is no volume number, use the issue number.
  • If there is no volume or issue number, list any available designation such as the dy and/or month or season.

Newspaper article


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page numbers.

Crowe, D 2013, 'Big projects ordered to buy local', The Australian, 17 January, p. 1.


In-text

Direct quote

"Big investors will ..." (Crowe 2013, p. 1)

Paraphrase

Crowe (2013, p. 1) claims bigger investors will ....


Notes

  • Newspaper articles are referenced the same as journal articles, just replace the vol/issue number with the day and month of publication. 

Newspaper article (no author)


Reference list entry

'Article Title' Year of publication, Newspaper Title, Day Month of issue, page numbers.

'Cyclists link up for homeless' 2012, Herald Sun, 17 November, p. 9.


In-text

Direct quote

"Up to 6500 cyclists are expected" (Cyclists link up for homeless 2012, p. 9)

Paraphrase

According to Cyclists link up for homeless (2012, p. 9) 6,500 cyclists were ...


Notes

  • Where there is no author, use the article title instead.
  • For the reference list, enclose the article title in single quotes '...'.
  • In-text, the article title is not enclosed in single quotes, but is in italics instead. 

Magazine article

  • Magazine articles, sourced from library databases or in print, are referenced the same as journal articles.
  • If you are referencing a magazine article you found freely available online, use the example below for Article on the internet.

Article on the internet


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Newspaper/Journal/Magazine Title, Day Month (or volume/issue number if applicable), page number/s (if applicable), viewed Day Month, <URL>.

Hamlyn-Harris, JH 2013, 'Ten ways you can avoid being caught in the PRISM net', The Conversation, 2 July, viewed 13 August 2013, <http://theconversation.com/ten-ways-you-can-avoid-being-caught-in-the-prism-net-15696>.


In-text

Direct quote

"Future developments in decryption ..." (Hamlyn-Harris 2013).

Paraphrase

Hamlyn-Harris (2013) looks at ...


Notes

  • Follow this example for articles freely available on the internet.
  • For articles from library databases or in print format, follow the example for journal or newspaper articles.
  • Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name – follow the guidelines and examples at Journal Article (no author) and Newspaper Article (no author).

Web

Website


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year, Title of Document/Webpage/Website, Organisation/Host, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Yates, J 2009, Tax expenditures and housing, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, viewed 12 November 2013, <http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download/ahuri_judith_yates_research_paper>.


In-text

Direct quote

"Most official estimates ..." (Yates 2009).

Paraphrase

Yates (2009) looked at the equity implications of tax ...


Notes

Image


Reference list entry

Author Year of publication, 'Title of image' (or description) [image], Title of Webpage,Organisation/Host, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Lyle58 2007, 'German Type 82 Kubelwagen, WWII reenactment' [image], in Lyle58's photostream, Flickr, viewed 30 August 2010, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyle58/1041158346/>.


In-text

Paraphrase

In the image above (Lyle58 2007) you can see...


Notes

  • Follow this example for a table, graph or image from a website, where no other part of the website is used.
  • If there is no identifiable author, use the title of the image instead.
  • If there is no author's name you can use the username.

Blog


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Blog Post Title', Title of Blog, Day Month (of post), viewed Day Month year, <URL>.

Berg, J 2013, 'Failure, organizational culture, and library management', BeerBrarian, 20 November, viewed 26 November 2013, < http://beerbrarian.blogspot.com.au/2013/11/failure-organizational-culture-and.html>.


In-text

Direct quote

Berg (2013) reminds us that "Failure is…"

Paraphrase

Library directors will ... (Berg 2013).


Notes

  • If no proper name is given, use the author's username.
  • If there is no author name or username, use the blog post title instead.
  • After the title of the blog, put the day and month of the individual post.
  • If an author posts multiple entries on the same day, include the time the entry was posted (e.g. 12 August, 1:24 PM)

Podcast


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year, Title of podcast, Title of show (if any), Name of Organisation/Website (if any), Day Month (of posting, if any), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Clements S, Krone, B, Girimaji, J & Denny, M 2012, E17 – enhancing your wireless with a MSE, No Strings Attached Show, 10 December, viewed 12 November 2013, <http://nostringsattachedshow.com/2012/12/10/e17-enhancing-your-wireless-with-a-mse/>.


In-text

Direct quote

"..." (Clements et al. 2013)

Paraphrase

Clements et al. (2013) discussed ...


Notes

  • For radio podcasts follow the example for TV and radio under Other sources.
  • Where there is no identifiable author or speaker, use the title of the podcast in place of the author. Example: Ira Flatow and the Teachable Moment 2013, Science Talk, Scientific American, 20 September, viewed 6 November 2013, <http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=ira-flatow-and-the-teachable-moment-13-09-20>.

Social media


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s)/Username Year of post, Title (or brief description of post), Day Month (date of post), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Dent, G 2013, Grace Dent, 13 January, viewed 23 January 2013, <https://twitter.com/gracedent/status/290434401811173376>.


In-text

Direct quote

Dent (2013) stated that "..."

Paraphrase

(Dent 2013)


Notes

  • Social media is usually cited as you would reference a website.
  • If there is no author's name use the username instead.
  • You do not need to list the name of the platform (eg. Facebook, Twitter).
  • If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (e.g. 13 January, 4:25 AM).

Online video


Reference list entry

Author Initial(s)/Username Year, Title of video, Day Month (video was posted), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

INSEADofficial 2010, Social responsibility in business today, 14 June, viewed 13 November 2012, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qwDQN-b72Y>.


In-text

Direct quote

"35% of GDP comes from new remittances" (INSEADofficial 2010).

Paraphrase

Chris Taylor's interview on INSEADofficial (2010) was ...


Notes

  • Use this example for video sharing sites such as YouTube and Vimeo.
  • If no proper name is given, use the username.
  • For official company or organistation YouTube channels, use the username exactly as it appears.
  • After the title, include the day and month the video was added.

Government

Australian Bureau of Statistics


Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics Year of publication, Title, catalogue number, ABS, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Marriages and divorces, Australia, cat. no. 3310.0, ABS, viewed 14 October 2013, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3310.0Main+Features12011?OpenDocument>.


In-text

Direct quote

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) reported that "The marriage rate ..."

Paraphrase

The figures showed ... (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011).


Notes

  • Include the ABS catalogue number after the title, if the item has one.
  • Use ABS as the Organisation/Host details.
  • Use the abbreviation 'cat. no.' for the catalogue number.

Acts of Parliament


Reference list entry

Title of the Act Year of publication (Jurisdiction), Location online, Section number (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (Cwlth), ComLaw, s. 21, viewed 21 December 2011, <http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2011C00973>.


In-text

Direct quote

"A person who..." (Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (Cwlth), s.21.019)

Paraphrase

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (Cwlth) provides for ...


Notes

  • Italicise both the title and year of publication.
  • List the abbreviation of the jurisdiction in brackets, e.g. for Commonwealth use (Cwlth).
  • Use 's.' or 'ss.' for the section number, e.g. s. 24 or ss. 24-56

Cases


Reference list entry

Name of the Case (Year), Report series and first page number, AustLII, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

R v Ramage (2004) VSC 508, AustLII, viewed 4 April 2012, <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/vic/VSC/2004/508.html>.


In-text

Direct quote

The judge in R v Ramage (2004) VSC 508 stated the "The Court cannot allow…"

Paraphrase

The judge in R v Ramage (2004) VSC 508 acknowledged …


Notes

  • For in-text references, write the full details directly into your text – only the year is enclosed in parentheses.
  • Italicise the name of the case.
  • List the report series using the abbreviation (e.g HCA stands for High Court of Australia).
  • If a case is reported in multiple report series, list all of the report series and starting page numbers, seperated by semicolons (e.g HCA 63; 208 CLR 199; 185 ALR 1; 76 ALJR 1)

Other sources

Conference paper


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Title of the paper', Title of the conference, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Hentschel, C, Wagner, A & Spanner-Ulmer, B 2012, 'Analysis of the application of the assembly-specific evaluation method EAWS for the ergonomic evaluation of logistic processes', Contemporary ergonomics and human factors 2012, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 221-226.


In-text

Direct quote

"Evaluation of logistic ..." (Hentschel, Wagner & Spanner-Ulmer 2012, p. 225)

Paraphrase

Hentschel, Wagner & Spanner-Ulmer (2012, p. 225) explain that ...


Notes

  • If there is no identifiable author, use the title instead.
  • Date of publication may differ to the date of the conference.
  • If the title of the conference also includes the place and date that the conference was held, then these should also be included in the title.

Dictionary or encyclopedia


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Title of entry', in Editor's Initial(s) Surname (ed./eds),Title of encyclopedia, Edition (if not the first), Volume number (if any), Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Meadows, M 2011, 'Indigenous media (Australia)', in JDH Downing (ed.), Encyclopedia of social movement media, SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, pp. 247-250.


In-text

Direct quote

Meadows (2011, p. 248) tells us that "Indigenous media ..."

Paraphrase

In Australia ... (Meadows 2011, p. 248)


Notes

  • List the entry title in single quotation marks and the encyclopedia title in italics.
  • Authored entry: Use the same layout as a chapter in an edited book (as above).
  • No author: If there is no author for an entry, use the title of the entry instead. Example: 'Scherenfernrohr' 2011, in P Chamberlain & S Zaloga (eds), Encyclopaedia of WWII field equipment, Wotpress, Minsk.
  • Online from Swinburne Library: If you are using an encyclopedia from a library database, replace the publisher and place of publication with the database name. Example: 'Naga' 2012, in J Bowker (ed.), The concise Oxford dictionary of world religions, Oxford Reference

Film, video or DVD


Reference list entry

Title Year of release [format], Production company, Place of Publication (if any).

Despicable me 2 2013 [DVD], Universal Studios.


In-text

Direct quote

" ... " (Despicable me 2 2013)

Paraphrase

Reformation of criminals in Despicable me 2 (2013) is explored by…


Notes

  • Enclose the format in square brackets, e.g [DVD], [VHS], [Blu-ray].
  • Any other details you decide are useful to help further identify the particular source you use can be included after the Place of Publication (eg Director's cut). Place a fullstop after Place of Publication, list the extra details and place fullstops between each different set of details.

Industry reports


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s)/Organisation Year of publication, Title, Library database, Report number (if any).

Williams, M 2012, Gold ore mining in Australia, IBISWorld, B1314.


In-text

Direct quote

"The industry has also faced higher..." (Williams 2012, p. 5).

Paraphrase

Williams (2012, p. 5) claims industry faces higher ...


Notes

  • Follow this example for industry and market reports from Swinburne Library databases.
  • Where there is no author, use the organisation responsible for the report. Example: 
    Morningstar Australasia 2013, Bank of Queensland Limited BOQ, DatAnalysis Premium.

Lecture


Reference list entry

Lecturer, Initial Year, 'Lecture title', Course code and name, Location online, University name, Date of presentation, viewed Day Month Year.

Tipping, R 2010, 'Lecture 1', HIT3423/8423 Enterprise system management, Learning materials on Blackboard, Swinburne University of Technology, 10 August, viewed 16 August 2010.


In-text

Direct quote

"Systems can be natural or artificial" (Tipping 2010)

Paraphrase

Tipping (2010) explained ...


Notes

  • Follow this example for lectures or powerpoint slides made available on Blackboard.
  • Enclose the lecture title in single quotes.
  • Course code and name are both italicised.

Leaflet / booklet


Reference list entry

Author/Organisation Year of publication, Title (or description), Publisher, Place of Publication, leaflet/booklet.

Epworth Richmond 2012?, Allergy challenge procedure, Epworth Richmond, Victoria, leaflet.


In-text

Direct quote

" ... " (Epworth Richmond 2012?)

Paraphrase

A brochure from the Epworth Richmond (2012?) demonstrated ...


Notes

  • Use this example for flyers, information sheets, pamphlets, brochures etc.
  • A leaflet is a single sheet of paper. A booklet is two or more sheets of paper joined together.
  • If there is no author, use the title of the pamphlet or the organisation/publisher as the author.
  • Use c. if you can determine an approximate date, ? for a possible date, n.d. when no date can be determined at all.
  • If publisher and/or place of publication cannot be determined, they can be omitted.

Personal communication


In-text

Author Year, Day Month

Direct quote

This was confirmed by email (Kelly 2008, 3 July).

Paraphrase

Peter Kelly confirmed this by email (2008, 3 July).


Notes

  • Includes emails, letters, interviews, phonecalls, conversations, presentations/public lectures, private social media communications etc. Personal communications should be written directly into your text.
  • A reference list entry is not required, unless your information sources are mostly comprised of personal communications.
  • Get permission from the person you are citing before using their details.
  • Keep hardcopies/printouts of emails and private social media communications as you may be required to prove their existence.

Standards


Reference list entry

Author Year of publication, Title, (Standard Number), Library database.

Standards Australia 2009, LP Gas fuel vessels for automotive use, (AS/NZS 3509:2009), SAI Global Limited.


In-text

Direct quote

The rule from Standards Australia (2009, p. 23) is: "An adhesive label ..."

Paraphrase

It is permissible to ... (Standards Australia 2009, p. 23).


Notes

  • Follow this example for Australian standards, IEEE, ASTM and SAE standards.
  • The standard number should be enclosed in brackets.
  • You must list the library database used to access the standard.

Thesis


Reference list entry

Author, Initial/s Year of publication, 'Title of thesis', Award, Institution, Location of Institution.

Jiang, J 2013, 'Balancing the roles of paid employment and unpaid caregiving', PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne.


In-text

Direct quote

"A caregiver's propensity to leave the workforce ..." (Jiang 2013, p. 40)

Paraphrase

Jiang's (2013) research found...


Notes

  • Theses are unpublished works, so the title is in single quotes not italics.
  • For Award you can use relevant abbreviation, e.g PhD thesis, Masters thesis, Honours thesis.

TV and radio


Reference list entry

Program Title Year of broadcast [format], Series title (if any), Broadcasting station, Day and Month of broadcast.

Laughter as medicine 2013 [radio program], RN Drive, ABC Radio National, 15 October.


In-text

Direct quote

" ... " (Laughter as medicine 2013)

Paraphrase

Laughter as medicine (2013) explored ...


Notes

  • Follow this example for referencing live broadcasts or TV and radio sourced from Library databases.
  • For format use [television program] or [radio program].
  • If there is no program title, use the series title instead. For example: 
    RN Drive 2012 [radio program], ABC Radio National, 5 December.
  • For podcast programs, add the date viewed and URL. For example: 
    The proteins which regulate obesity 2012 [radio program], The Science Show, ABC Radio National, 1 December, viewed 6 December 2012, <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2012/12/ssw_20121201_1217.mp3>.

Useful link