Single book

Referencing a book

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Fetherston (2007, p. 61) claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (p. 61).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be included if summarising an idea from a particular page.

Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).

Reference list entry

You may need to double-space your reference list as APA style requires double spacing with a hanging indent.

In APA 6th Ed, locations in the US are formed as City, state abbreviation e.g. New York, NY. Locations outside the US are City, Country e.g. London, England. See section 6.30 of the APA Style Guide for further information.

Fetherston, T. (2007). Becoming an effective teacher. South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson Learning.

A particular edition of a book

No modification to the in-text citations for either direct quotes or paraphrasing is necessary to specify a particular edition.

Reference list entry

Add the edition to the reference list entry.

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham, England: Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University Press.

Book whose author is an organisation

Direct Quote

“For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).

Paraphrasing

For 2011, both a 1% and 5% sample have been produced. The release…(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).

Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). 2011 Census dictionary (No. 2901.0). Canberra, ACT: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Referencing a book with multiple authors

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Bohm and Chaudri (2000, p. 52) claim that Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (p. 52).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudri, 2000).

Reference list entry

Bohm, A., & Chaudri, D. (2000). Securing Australia's future: An analysis of the international education markets in India. Sydney, Australia: IDP Education Australia.

Referencing a book with three to five authors

Cite all authors the first time. In subsequent citations use the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

First citation:

Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O'Brien, and Tran (2002, p. 27) found that universities "are embracing the concept".

Subsequent citation/s:

Bell et al. (2002, p. 27) stated that "Australian universities have led the way".

Alternatively:

"Australian universities have led the way" (Bell et al., 2002, p. 27).

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

First citation:

Australian universities are actively using online technology (Bell, Bush, Nicholson, O'Brien, & Tran, 2002).

Subsequent citation/s:

Bell et al. (2002)...or...(Bell et al., 2002)

Reference list entry

Bell, M., Bush, D., Nicholson, P., O'Brien, D., & Tran, T. (2002). Universities online: A survey of online education and services in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Science and Training.

Referencing a book with more than five authors

Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the all citations.

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Louden et al. (2000, p. 27) concludes that the number of primary students "having difficulty with numeracy is somewhat lower than that of literacy".

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

The report concluded that difficulties with numeracy were less than difficulties with literacy for primary school students (Louden et al., 2000).

Reference list entry

Give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six author' names, then insert 3 ellipsis points, and add the last author's name.

Louden, W., Chan, L. K., Elkins, J., Greaves, D., House, H., Milton, M.,...Van Kraayenoord, C. (2000). Mapping the territory: Primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and numeracy: Vol. 2. Analysis. Canberra, Australia: Department Education, Training and Youth Affairs.

Referencing a book with no known author

Direct quote

Page numbers must be included.

Higher education in Australia (2004, p. 23) claims that Australia is "a major provider of international education and training services".

Paraphrasing

Page numbers may be required.

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher education in Australia, 2004).

Reference list entry

Higher education in Australia: The facts. (2004). Fitzroy, Australia: Business/Higher Education Round Table.